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Complete analysis of common problems of solar water heater
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Solar water heater is a device that converts the solar energy into heat energy, which heats the water from low temperature to high temperature, so as to meet the hot water use in people's daily life and production. Solar water heater is divided into vacuum tube solar water heater and flat plate solar water heater according to the structure form, vacuum tube type solar water heater is the main, occupying 95% of the domestic market share. The vacuum tube type household solar water heater is composed of a heat collecting tube, a water storage tank and a bracket, etc. the solar energy is converted into heat energy, mainly relying on the heat collecting tube, and the heat collecting tube uses the hot water to float the cold water to sink the principle, so that the water produces the micro circulation and achieves the hot water needed.
Chinese name solar water heater
Foreign name solarwaterheater
Membership of solar energy utilization
The principle of converting solar energy into heat energy
Solar energy (SolarEnergy), generally refers to the solar radiation energy, solar energy is a renewable energy, the broad sense of solar energy is the earth
Different brands of solar water heaters (8 pieces)
There are many sources of energy, such as wind energy, biomass energy, tidal energy, potential energy of water, etc.. The basic ways of solar energy utilization can be divided into four categories: light heat utilization, light electricity utilization, light chemical utilization, light biological utilization. Among the four types of solar energy utilization, the technology of light heat conversion is the most mature, the product is the most, and the cost is relatively low. Such as: solar water heater, water heater, dryer, solar cooker, solar greenhouse, solar house, solar desalination device, solar heating and cooler, etc.. Solar thermal power generation has higher conversion efficiency than photovoltaic power generation, but the application is not universal. In the photothermal conversion, the current application of the widest range, the most mature technology, the best economy is the use of solar water heaters.
2 solar energy utilization
Photo thermal utilization: it collects solar radiation and converts it into heat energy through interaction with matter. The most widely used solar energy collectors are flat plate collectors, vacuum tube collectors and focus collectors, etc., 3 types. Solar power generation: the future large-scale use of solar energy is used to generate electricity. There are two ways of using solar power:
Photo thermal electric conversion. That is, thermal energy generated by solar radiation. Generally, the heat absorbed by the solar collector is converted into the steam of the working medium, and then the steam driven gas turbine drives the generator to generate electricity. The former process is a photo thermal transition, and the latter one is a thermal electric conversion.
Photo electric conversion. The basic principle is to convert solar radiation directly into electrical energy by photovoltaic effect, and its basic device is solar cell.
Photochemical use: This is a photochemical conversion of hydrogen directly from water by solar radiation.
Photo biological utilization: the process of converting solar energy to biomass through the use of light in plants. There are fast growing plants (such as oil shale), oil crops and giant algae.
The sun through the first layer of glass heat pipe according to black heat absorbing layer second layers of glass, solar energy heat absorption, because between two layers of glass is vacuum insulated, the heat transfer will be greatly reduced (heat radiation still exists, but there is no thermal conduction and convection), most of the heat is only transmitted to the glass tube the water inside the glass tube, heating water, heating water and light along the glass tube heating surface to enter the insulation water storage barrel, the barrel temperature is relatively low water along the glass tube into the back surface of glass tube, this constant cycle, the preservation of the water in the water bucket so as to achieve the continuous heating, hot water the purpose of.
Heat collecting elements in the system. Its function is equivalent to electric heating pipe in electric water heater. Unlike the electric water heater and the gas water heater, the solar collector uses the radiant heat of the sun, so the heating time can only reach a certain value when the solar radiation reaches a certain value.
At present, the most common solar vacuum collector tubes in China are all glass solar collectors. The structure is divided into an outer tube and an inner tube, and a selective absorbing coating is coated on the outer wall of the inner tube. The heat collecting panel collector plate coated with black chromium heat absorbing film, the heat collecting plate welding in a metal tube, flat plate collector - air traffic control collector cost is slightly higher in recent years, the flat plate collector showed a rising trend, especially has the unique superiority in the high-rise residential balcony type solar water heater. All glass solar collector vacuum tube is usually made of high borosilicate 3.3 hard glass. Selective heat absorbing film adopts vacuum sputtering selective coating process.
Thermal insulation water tank
Container for storing hot water. The hot water collected through the heat collecting tube must be stored in the heat storage tank to prevent heat loss. The capacity of solar water heater refers to the water capacity that can be used in the water heater, excluding the capacity that can not be used in the vacuum tube. For pressure type solar water heater, its capacity refers to the medium capacity that can produce heat exchange.
The solar water heater insulation tank consists of three parts: inner liner, thermal insulation layer and water tank shell.
The water tank is an important part of hot water storage, the material strength and corrosion resistance is very important. Stainless steel, enamel and other materials on the market. Insulation insulation materials will directly affect the insulation effect, in the cold season is especially important. The best way is to heat insulation overall polyurethane foaming process. The shell is generally color steel plate, galvanized plate or stainless steel plate.
Water tank insulation requirements of good insulation effect, corrosion resistance, water clean.
The shelf support heat collector and heat insulation water tank. Requirements of firm structure, high stability, anti snow, aging resistance, no rust. General material is stainless steel, steel spray or Aluminum Alloy.
The solar water heater is the first to enter the water storage tank, and then through the collector will heat transfer to the thermal insulation water tank. The heat storage tank is connected with the indoor cold and hot water pipe, make the whole loop to form a closed system. Reasonable design, pipeline connecting solar solar system to correct whether it can achieve the best working condition is critical. The pipeline must do solar heat treatment, cold northern regions need to lay in the outer wall of the pipe with the tropics, to ensure that users in the cold winter can also use solar water heater.
The control unit
General household solar water heaters need automatic or semi automatic operation control system is indispensable, the common controller is automatically filled with water and water water, water temperature and water level display, solar water heater and electric leakage protection, anti dry burning function of auxiliary electric heating device. There is intelligent mobile phone SMS control solar water heater market, with water temperature and water level query, fault alarm, start off the water, water, start the electric heating function, convenient for users.
4 working principle
The heat collecting principle
The solar water heater solar energy into heat energy, heating the water from the low temperature to high temperature, in order to meet the people in life and production of hot water use. The solar water heater in the form of the structure for vacuum tube solar water heater and flat plate solar water heater, vacuum tube solar water heater, occupy the domestic market share of 95%. Vacuum tube type solar water heater is composed of a heat collecting pipe, a water storage tank and bracket and other accessories, converting solar energy into heat energy mainly depends on the tube. Using the principle of heat cold water sinking floating, the water circulation and desired hot water.
Endothermic vacuum tube water heater, solar radiation through the vacuum tube of the outer tube is collector coated after absorption along the inner wall to the water in the tube. The water in the tube after absorbing the heat temperature, decreasing the proportion rose to form an upward force, constitute a thermal siphon system. With the rising of water stored in the tank top, while the lower temperature water along the opposite side of the tube to complement this way, eventually FCL water rises to a certain temperature.
Plate type water heater, usually split water heater, medium in internal thermosyphon heat plate natural circulation, the solar radiation in the heat collecting plate heat promptly sent to the water tank through the heat exchange tank (jacket or coils) will transfer heat to the cold water. The media can also be transmitted through the heat pump cycle.
The circulation line
Domestic solar water heater usually according to natural circulation mode, no external power. Vacuum tube type solar water heater for the in-line structure, water powered by gravity. Flat type solar water heater through the pressure of tap water (called top water powered). The solar central heating system adopts pump circulation. Because of the hot area is not set of solar water heaters, taking into account the energy loss, generally do not use the circulation pipeline.
The use of the process
Flat type solar water heater for top water, vacuum tube solar water heater can also implement top water works, the water tank can be a jacket or coil form. The advantages of the top water is the water pressure of tap water pressure than the natural gravity pressure, especially the installation height is not high, its characteristic is in the process of using water from high to low, easy to grasp, easy to adapt to the user, but keep the tap water supply capacity. The solar water heater top water way than gravity type water heaters cost, high price.
1. temperature control in thermal cycle
Solar water heating system with heat collector temperature sensor and temperature sensor, heat collecting system absorbs solar radiation, heat temperature rise when the collector temperature and the temperature of the water tank water temperature difference of t set value, instruction detection system, the cold water circulating pump input central water heater in the heat collector. The water is heated and then returned to the water tank, the water inside the water tank reaches the set temperature.
2. heating cycle system
A hot water circulating pump, through the controller to control the heating cycle. When the water temperature reaches the set temperature, automatically start heating circulating pump, the high temperature water through the heating coil in the interior circulation, so that the indoor temperature rising. When the water temperature is lower than a set value, automatically stop heating circulating pump.
In terms of structure, can be divided into the following categories:
1, from the heat collecting part to:
1) glass vacuum tube solar water heater
It can be divided into all glass vacuum tube type, heat pipe vacuum tube type, U tube vacuum tube type / vacuum tube heat collection and heat storage integrated type. Commonly used for all glass vacuum tube type, its advantages: safety, energy saving, environmental protection, economy. Especially the solar water heater with an auxiliary electric heating function, which by the solar energy, supplemented by the way of using energy to the solar water heater all-weather normal operation, the ambient temperature is low efficiency is still relatively high. Its disadvantage is that the volume is relatively large, glass tube is fragile, easy to accumulate scale in the pipe, can not bear pressure operation.
2) flat plate solar water heater
Flat plate solar water heater can be divided into tube plate, wing tube type, snake tube type, flat box, round tube and heat pipe type. It has the advantage of integrity,
Water heater Exhibition
Long service life, less failure, safety, low pressure operation, safe and reliable, easy to heat absorption area, combined with the construction, resistance to water and air drying advantages, its thermal performance is stable. Because of the non vacuum in the cover plate and the poor heat preservation performance, the collector has poor heat collecting performance when the environment temperature is low, and the relative power consumption is used when the auxiliary heating is adopted. When the temperature is low or the outlet temperature is high, the thermal efficiency is low. In case of freezing, it is necessary to replace the whole heat collecting plate, which is suitable for the southern area where the winter is not frozen.
3) ceramic hollow flat plate solar water heater
Ceramic solar panels are a common ceramic matrix, three-dimensional mesh surface layer of V-Ti black ceramics hollow thin-walled flat box type solar collector. Ceramic solar panels for the whole ceramic material, waterproof, impermeable, high strength, good rigidity, no corrosion, not aging, do not fade, non-toxic, harmless, non radioactive, sunlight absorption rate does not decay, with long-term high photothermal conversion efficiency.
The solar water heater by the national quality supervision and inspection center, ceramic solar panels absorb sunlight ratio is 0.95, the concrete structure ceramic solar roof, heat is 8.6MJ, far higher than the national standard. Ceramic solar panel manufacturing, low cost, light absorption ratio does not decay, with life and architecture, can be used for concrete structure and the roof structure shared ceramic layer and the insulating layer, waterproof layer, simple structure, good insulation effect on the original roof, and building integrated solar roof, wall, balcony guardrail surface Xiangyang provide hot water, heating, air conditioning, building; provide heat energy for agriculture and aquaculture; can be used for large-scale desert solar hot water power generation, wind power generation, desalination, brackish water desalination, turn the desert into farmland.
2. Classify from structure:
1) compact type solar water heater: is the vacuum glass tube is directly inserted into the water tank, by heating the water cycle, the water temperature in the water tank increases, this is the most conventional solar water heater market.
2) split water heater: split water heater is a heat collector and a water tank separately, can greatly increase the capacity of the solar water heater, the water work mode, expand the scope of use.
3, from the water tank pressure points:
1) pressure type solar water heater: the water outlet of solar water heater is pressure. Usually the top water type work, not necessarily using pressure type water tank.
2) non pressurized solar water heater: ordinary solar water heaters are non pressure type water heater, the water tank has a tube communicated with the atmosphere, is the use of the roof and the drop in the home, when using water pressure. Its safety, cost and service life are much more significant than those of pressure type.
High tech products, copper and aluminum polarization composite plate core or all purple copper core, high surface treatment process, good heat transfer performance, strong heat absorption capacity, large water production.
System of good insulation properties, energy storage and heat preservation water tank with water storage function, can satisfy the mass concentration using hot water, can also be used as emergency water for water.
The solar water heater system for automatic static operation, without special care, no noise, no pollution, no leakage, poisoning, fire danger, safety, environmental protection and energy saving benefits.
With sewage purification function, clean water, no pollution.
Vacuum tube solar water heater has good thermal insulation performance and strong frost resistance.
Large area installation has insulation effect on the floor
Solar water heater is an investment in theory, and it doesn't cost money. In fact, it's impossible.
The reason is that there are cloudy and snowy weather every year, and the lack of sunshine in winter. In this climate mainly depends on the electric heating system of hot water (there are some products by gas heating), the average 25%~50% above the water to completely rely on the electric heating area between each year (not the same area, the actual power consumption in more bigger. Nearly three years of statistical data of Shanghai area shows that the average annual rainy days up to 67%, full utilization of heat energy from the solar water heater 70% electricity or gas). In this way, the actual power consumption of solar water heater is larger than that of heat pump water heater. In addition, the "electric anti freezing belt (only in the northern region)" which is installed on the outdoor pipe of solar water heater also consumes a large amount of electricity. In addition, there are many difficult technical defects in the structure of solar water heater.
1, hot water pipeline up to ten meters, each use a lot of waste water. Calculated with typical 12 mm water pipe, the water storage per 1 meters length is 0.113 kg. If the length of the solar hot water pipe is 15 meters, it will waste about 1.7 kilograms of water each time. If the average use of 6 times a day, the daily waste of 10.2 kilograms of water; 360 kilograms of water per month waste; 4320 kilograms of water per year waste; ten years waste 43200 kilograms of water! Save some electricity at the expense of water, I'm afraid, whether it's the government or the people, if you know that, they won't approve. China more than 660 City, more than half of the city of different degree of shortage, the serious water shortage in the 111 year, because of the lack of water on industrial output value reached about 200000000000 yuan.
2, it takes a whole day's sunshine to warm up the water. When the weather is good, you can only guarantee hot water at night. There is little hot water available during the day and at night. Users can not guarantee 24 hours hot water supply, poor comfort.
The lighting board 3, solar water heaters must be installed on the roof, which is large and bulky, and the aesthetic impact of construction (the more high-grade residential areas more obvious), but also easy to damage the roof waterproof layer.
4, photoelectric complementary, in fact, can not be properly implemented. The solar water heater market 90% are difficult to overcome the problem of winter water does not reach, or produce only a small amount of hot water; these products can only be used when sunny in summer and autumn, there was no weak winter sunshine, or hot water is too small, not good, often customer complaints; in fact, solar water heater is true can be used throughout the year. Hot water using a large amount of time is concentrated in the winter, and the heat collecting effect in winter and can not meet the requirements, basically limited by weather condition, get rid of ordinary solar water heater "heaven" limitations, it is difficult to ensure there are still plenty of hot water in winter. Many dealers to make up for the lack of solar water production, the need to increase the electric or oil boiler, but this double investment, increase customer economic burden. Consumers will waste a lot of electricity in actual use, and further reduce the use of comfort. The solar water heater in the insufficient sunshine weather can also have hot water, the basic use of the so-called "photoelectric complementary" technology, is also in the solar water heater adds an electric heater. Theoretically, as long as the hot water is insufficient, the electric heating tube can be heated. That sounds beautiful. In fact, because consumers use hot water mode is very complex, 365 days a year sunshine situation is not fixed. So there's no way to properly address when to start electrical heating is the most appropriate". The control of temperature and time are in fact not (because the sunny weather just note the tap water temperature below the set temperature, if only by temperature control, it will not need the electric heating when energized). The first looks simple "electric heating control" does not solve the problem of any solar manufacturers perfect one hundred percent solar manufacturers are included.
5, there is a serious drawback is that the market is now more than 99% of all non pressure very backward "(including the field of solar water heater several strong brands, sales of all the non bearing type), commonly known as" water type". There is only one water pipe in the water inlet and outlet, so it is very inconvenient to use. It is not comfortable at all.
With the continued deterioration of rising energy costs and traditional environment, solar hot water engineering solutions are increasingly being used in residential, villas, hotels, scenic spots, science and technology parks, hospitals, schools, industrial area, agricultural planting and breeding areas and many other fields, for the rational design and arrangement of different water use to achieve the comprehensive utilization of energy, and reduce the cost of inputs.
Solar hot water project is mainly composed of solar collector, thermal storage system, control system, heat system, auxiliary power system, insulation materials, pipeline systems and accessories etc.. The solar collector absorbs the heat of the sun, the water in the heating pipe, heating water by the circulating pump through the pipeline transported to the thermal storage device, through the design of overall energy system can provide the basis for the hot water boiler, heat pump, transported to the hot line through the use of.
1. suitable for installation on roof and other fixed installation position (steel structure bracket);
2. collector beautiful atmosphere, can be installed at any angle, easy maintenance;
The 3. collector model is diverse, can meet any space installation, customer selection diversification.
Heat storage system:
1. patent engineering water tank, strong anti-corrosion performance, water nozzle design specification is reasonable, connecting pipe is convenient;
2. insulation layer for polyurethane foam once forming, uniform foaming, good insulation effect;
3. complete model, can meet the user's demand for hot water below 80 tons;
4. can meet the heating demand of 400 meters below the building single household.
Heat exchange system:
1. choose high efficiency and high quality heat exchanger, the effect of heat exchange is good;
2. using heat exchange system, the water quality of the system is good;
3. the design of independent heat exchange system can meet a variety of users with hot water quality, water pressure and water demand.
1. using PLC program module control, multi-point control, high precision, stable performance;
2. control interface user-friendly, clear module, easy operation.
Auxiliary energy system:
1. kinds of auxiliary heat source selection, electric auxiliary, auxiliary gas, coal-fired boiler and oil fired boiler and auxiliary auxiliary auxiliary heat pump can be selected according to the user characteristics;
The 2. systems have more heat, low heat loss.
1. made of polystyrene foam material, good insulation, small heat;
2. external insulation aluminum foil, appearance, anti radiation.
The piping system and accessories:
1. pipe used standard PVC pipe, reasonable economy;
2. standard parts design, rust and corrosion.
Hot water all day long 24 hours: the annual effect to ensure that adequate water supply, that is hot;
Water quality assurance: constant pressure, stable water temperature, the water clean;
System integration: system design overall consideration, collocation of auxiliary heat source, professional analysis software, the system is reliable and efficient, humanized design;
The quality assurance system to give full protection to the collector, water tank, circulating pump, pipeline and other aspects, to ensure the safe and stable operation of the system for more than 20 years;
Intelligent control system: full data display, intelligent control, metering, accurate information.
1. the installation of solar water heaters, transport may be stained with dust or the smell of oil pipe, used for the first time to open the tap to remove debris.
Save water 2. solar water heater, should be regularly discharged according to the quality of the local situation, the drainage time optional in the morning low temperature collector.
3. solar water heater surface, and make regular wipe in area dust, rain can play its own cleaning, clean the surface of the water heater can be obtained
Set a higher thermal efficiency.
4. consecutive sunny days do not use hot water when the water temperature is very high, in the use of solar water heaters please open the cold water, open water, so as not to burn.
5. water outlet generally has a filter device, the scale debris in the water pipe will be gathered in the network, should be regularly to remove the cleaning, can increase the water outflow smoothly.
6. in winter, the frozen pipe is very common, such as the pipeline has been found but not freezing pipe cracking, the temperature rise after the general can automatically clear. Can also blow drying hair dryer, or with a towel wrapped around the pipe, and then use warm water pour slowly, do not use fire, tap on a pipe or with boiling water rush hot, it would make the pipe burst. Repeatedly freezing easily cracking pipes, so therefore need to strengthen the pipeline insulation measures.
7. solar water heater every two to three years on the need for inspection, cleaning and disinfection, the user can usually do it yourself some disinfection, disinfectants such as chlorine can buy some to the water inlet is poured in, let it soak for a period of time, and then released, can play a certain effect of disinfection and sterilization.
8. solar water heater with an average of two to three years to clean inside of the vacuum tube, the inside of the vacuum tube to prevent scale effect of heat absorbing effect.
9. if the solar water heater with special instruments need to pay attention to the lightning proof electric thunder, do not bathe and unplug the electric heating plug.
The vast majority of the market only equipped with electric heating tube temperature controller is simple, does not have a real system of anti dry burning function. At the same time, most of the solar water heater installed in the outdoor roof, the difference in management of the extensive technology and management personnel, plus some electric heating tube manufacturers to mislead its products "can prevent dry burning, resulting from the installation of solar water heater on heating tube, there is a serious hidden danger of accident. How to solve the heating "dry burning" this problem? In addition to choose reliable suppliers should also be in the winter of solar energy are few, also should go to the water tank of the solar water heater on the water, according to the data, there is no water tank, solar vacuum tube in air drying, the temperature in the tube can reach about 2500C, it is easy to pipe explosion. The winter pipes are exposed, the weather is very cold, icy water inside the pipe can not solve this problem, need only in the water pipe or solar tube coated with a layer of thick sponge, can effectively prevent the water up to ATC and fried tube.
Secondly, to check the leakage protection device work is intact, this is also very important. Also in the case of conditions from time to time to clean the water tank. In short, whether it is the solar water heater with electrothermal tube or other liquid electric heating pipe can not be separated from the liquid or dry, will make the electric heating tube internal high temperature and the heating pipe burn, cause safety hazards.