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Complete analysis of common problems of solar water heater
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Solar water heater is a device that converts the solar energy into heat energy, which heats the water from low temperature to high temperature, so as to meet the hot water use in people's daily life and production. Solar water heater is divided into vacuum tube solar water heater and flat plate solar water heater according to the structure form, vacuum tube type solar water heater is the main, occupying 95% of the domestic market share. The vacuum tube type household solar water heater is composed of a heat collecting tube, a water storage tank and a bracket, etc. the solar energy is converted into heat energy, mainly relying on the heat collecting tube, and the heat collecting tube uses the hot water to float the cold water to sink the principle, so that the water produces the micro circulation and achieves the hot water needed.
Chinese name solar water heater
Foreign name solarwaterheater
Membership of solar energy utilization
The principle of converting solar energy into heat energy
Solar energy (SolarEnergy), generally refers to the solar radiation energy, solar energy is a renewable energy, the broad sense of solar energy is the earth
Different brands of solar water heaters (8 pieces)
There are many sources of energy, such as wind energy, biomass energy, tidal energy, potential energy of water, etc.. The basic ways of solar energy utilization can be divided into four categories: light heat utilization, light electricity utilization, light chemical utilization, light biological utilization. Among the four types of solar energy utilization, the technology of light heat conversion is the most mature, the product is the most, and the cost is relatively low. Such as: solar water heater, water heater, dryer, solar cooker, solar greenhouse, solar house, solar desalination device, solar heating and cooler, etc.. Solar thermal power generation has higher conversion efficiency than photovoltaic power generation, but the application is not universal. In the photothermal conversion, the current application of the widest range, the most mature technology, the best economy is the use of solar water heaters.
2 solar energy utilization
Photo thermal utilization: it collects solar radiation and converts it into heat energy through interaction with matter. The most widely used solar energy collectors are flat plate collectors, vacuum tube collectors and focus collectors, etc., 3 types. Solar power generation: the future large-scale use of solar energy is used to generate electricity. There are two ways of using solar power:
Photo thermal electric conversion. That is, thermal energy generated by solar radiation. Generally, the heat absorbed by the solar collector is converted into the steam of the working medium, and then the steam driven gas turbine drives the generator to generate electricity. The former process is a photo thermal transition, and the latter one is a thermal electric conversion.
Photo electric conversion. The basic principle is to convert solar radiation directly into electrical energy by photovoltaic effect, and its basic device is solar cell.
Photochemical use: This is a photochemical conversion of hydrogen directly from water by solar radiation.
Photo biological utilization: the process of converting solar energy to biomass through the use of light in plants. There are fast growing plants (such as oil shale), oil crops and giant algae.
The sun through the first layer of glass heat pipe according to black heat absorbing layer second layers of glass, solar energy heat absorption, because between two layers of glass is vacuum insulated, the heat transfer will be greatly reduced (heat radiation still exists, but there is no thermal conduction and convection), most of the heat is only transmitted to the glass tube the water inside the glass tube, heating water, heating water and light along the glass tube heating surface to enter the insulation water storage barrel, the barrel temperature is relatively low water along the glass tube into the back surface of glass tube, this constant cycle, the preservation of the water in the water bucket so as to achieve the continuous heating, hot water the purpose of.
Heat collecting elements in the system. Its function is equivalent to electric heating pipe in electric water heater. Unlike the electric water heater and the gas water heater, the solar collector uses the radiant heat of the sun, so the heating time can only reach a certain value when the solar radiation reaches a certain value.
At present, the most common solar vacuum collector tubes in China are all glass solar collectors. The structure is divided into an outer tube and an inner tube, and a selective absorbing coating is coated on the outer wall of the inner tube. The heat collecting panel collector plate coated with black chromium heat absorbing film, the heat collecting plate welding in a metal tube, flat plate collector - air traffic control collector cost is slightly higher in recent years, the flat plate collector showed a rising trend, especially has the unique superiority in the high-rise residential balcony type solar water heater. All glass solar collector vacuum tube is usually made of high borosilicate 3.3 hard glass. Selective heat absorbing film adopts vacuum sputtering selective coating process.
Thermal insulation water tank
Container for storing hot water. The hot water collected through the heat collecting tube must be stored in the heat storage tank to prevent heat loss. The capacity of solar water heater refers to the water capacity that can be used in the water heater, excluding the capacity that can not be used in the vacuum tube. For pressure type solar water heater, its capacity refers to the medium capacity that can produce heat exchange.
The solar water heater insulation tank consists of three parts: inner liner, thermal insulation layer and water tank shell.
The tank liner is an important part of hot water storage, and its material strength and corrosion resistance are very important. There are stainless steel, enamel and other materials on the market. The insulation material of insulation layer is directly related to the effect of insulation, especially in cold season. The better way of heat preservation is the whole process of polyurethane foaming. The shell is made of color steel plate, aluminium plated zinc plate or stainless steel plate.
The heat preservation water tank requires good insulation effect, corrosion resistance and clean water quality.
Frame for supporting heat collector and heat preservation water tank. It requires firm structure, high stability, resistance to wind and snow, aging resistance, and no rust. The material is stainless steel, aluminum alloy or steel spraying.
Solar water heater is to enter the cold water into the heat storage tank first, and then transfer the heat to the heat preservation water tank through the heat collector. The heat storage water tank is connected with the indoor cold and hot water pipeline, so that the whole system forms a closed loop. It is very important to design a reasonable and connected solar pipe to achieve the best working state of the solar energy system. Solar energy pipelines must be insulated, and the northern cold areas need to be laid on the outer wall of the pipeline to ensure that users can use solar hot water in cold and winter.
The general household solar water heater needs automatic or semi-automatic operation, and the control system is indispensable. The commonly used controller is the automatic water supply, the water full of water and water temperature and water level, auxiliary heating of solar water heater, as well as leakage protection, anti dry burning and other functions. The intelligent solar water heater controlled by mobile phone short message has the functions of water temperature and water level inquiry, fault alarm, starting water supply, closing water supply, starting electric heating and so on, which is convenient for users.
4 working principle
Principle of heat collection
The solar water heater converts the solar energy into heat energy, and heats the water from low temperature to high temperature, so as to satisfy the people's hot water use in daily life and production. Solar water heater is divided into vacuum tube solar water heater and flat plate solar water heater according to the structure form, vacuum tube type solar water heater is the main, occupying 95% of the domestic market share. The vacuum tube type household solar water heater is composed of heat collecting tubes, water storage tanks and brackets and other related accessories. Solar energy is mainly converted to heat pipes. The heat collecting tube uses the principle that the hot water rises and sinks in cold water to make the water produce microcirculation and reach the required hot water.
When the vacuum tube type water heater absorbs heat, the solar radiation passes through the outer tube of the vacuum tube and is absorbed by the heat collecting coating and then transferred to the water inside the pipe along the inner pipe wall. When the water in the tube absorbs heat, the temperature rises, the specific gravity decreases and rises, forming an upward force, forming a thermosyphon system. With the rising of water stored in the tank top, while the lower temperature water along the opposite side of the tube to complement this way, eventually FCL water rises to a certain temperature.
The plate type water heater is usually a split water heater, and the medium is heated by the heat collector and the natural circulation of the siphon is carried out. The heat of the solar radiation is transmitted to the water tank in time, and the heat is transferred to the cold water through the heat exchange (jacket or coil). The medium can also realize heat transfer through pump circulation.
Household solar water heaters usually work in natural circulation without external motivation. The vacuum tube solar water heater is a straight line structure, and hot water provides power by gravity. Flat panel solar water heaters provide power through the pressure of the tap water (called top water). The solar central heating system adopts pump cycle. Due to the small heat collection area of solar water heater, the pipeline circulation is generally not taken into account in the case of thermal energy loss.
The flat plate solar water heater works in the way of top water, and the vacuum tube solar water heater can also implement the way of top water work, and the water tank can be jacketed or coiled. The advantage of top water work is that the water supply pressure is tap water pressure, which is larger than the natural gravity pressure, especially when the installation height is not high. The characteristic of the water supply is that the water temperature is high and low after the use, easy to master, and the user is easy to adapt, but the tap water is required to maintain the water supply capacity. The solar water heater with top water working mode has higher cost and higher price than gravity water heater.
1. temperature difference control heat collecting cycle
Solar water heating system with heat collector temperature sensor and temperature sensor, heat collecting system absorbs solar radiation, heat temperature rise when the collector temperature and the temperature of the water tank water temperature difference of t set value, instruction detection system, the cold water circulating pump input central water heater in the heat collector. The water is heated and then returned to the water tank, the water inside the water tank reaches the set temperature.
2. ground heating pipeline circulation system
A hot water circulating pump is added to control the ground heating pipe circulation. When the water temperature reaches the set temperature, the ground heating circulating pump is automatically started, so that the high temperature water can be recycled in the room through the floor heating coil, so that the indoor temperature is continuously improved. When the water temperature of the water tank is lower than a certain setting value, the ground heating pipeline circulating pump can be stopped automatically.
As far as its structure is concerned, it can be roughly divided into the following categories:
1, from the heat collection part:
1) glass vacuum tube solar water heater
It can be divided into all glass vacuum tube type, heat pipe vacuum tube type, U tube vacuum tube type / vacuum tube heat collection and heat storage integrated type. Commonly used for all glass vacuum tube type, its advantages: safety, energy saving, environmental protection, economy. Especially, the solar water heater with auxiliary electric heating function, which uses solar energy as the main and auxiliary energy utilization mode, makes the solar water heater run normally throughout the year, and the efficiency is still relatively high when the ambient temperature is low. Its disadvantage is that the volume is relatively large, glass tube is fragile, easy to accumulate scale in the pipe, can not bear pressure operation.
2) flat plate solar water heater
Flat plate solar water heater can be divided into tube plate, wing tube type, snake tube type, flat box, round tube and heat pipe type. It has the advantage of integrity,
Water heater Exhibition
It has the advantages of long life, less failure, low safety hidden trouble, safe operation, large area of heat absorbing body, easy combination with building, strong resistance to dry air and so on, and its thermal performance is stable. Because of the non vacuum in the cover plate and the poor heat preservation performance, the collector has poor heat collecting performance when the environment temperature is low, and the relative power consumption is used when the auxiliary heating is adopted. When the temperature is low or the outlet temperature is high, the thermal efficiency is low. In case of freezing, it is necessary to replace the whole heat collecting plate, which is suitable for the southern area where the winter is not frozen.
3) ceramic hollow flat plate solar water heater
Ceramic solar panels are a common ceramic matrix, three-dimensional mesh surface layer of V-Ti black ceramics hollow thin-walled flat box type solar collector. Ceramic solar panels as a whole of porcelain materials, impervious, impermeable, high strength, good rigidity, no corrosion, no aging, no fading, non-toxic, harmless, no radioactive, sunlight absorption rate will not decay, with a long-term high heat and light conversion efficiency.
By the national solar water heater quality supervision and inspection center, the solar absorptance of ceramic solar panels is 0.95, and the daily heat gain of concrete structural ceramic solar roofs is 8.6MJ, much higher than the national standard. Ceramic solar panel manufacturing, low cost, light absorption ratio does not decay, with life and architecture, can be used for concrete structure and the roof structure shared ceramic layer and the insulating layer, waterproof layer, simple structure, good insulation effect on the original roof, and building integrated solar roof, wall, balcony guardrail surface Xiangyang provide hot water, heating, air conditioning, building; provide heat energy for agriculture and aquaculture; can be used for large-scale desert solar hot water power generation, wind power generation, desalination, brackish water desalination, turn the desert into farmland.
2. Classify from structure:
1) compact solar water heater: the vacuum glass tube is directly inserted into the water tank, the use of heating water cycle, making the water temperature rise in the tank, which is the most conventional solar water heater market.
2) split type water heater: the split type water heater separates the heat collector from the water tank, which can greatly increase the capacity of solar water heater, and does not use the falling water type operation mode, thus enlarging the scope of application.
3, from the water tank pressure points:
1) pressure type solar water heater: the water outlet of solar water heater is pressure. Usually the top water type work, not necessarily using pressure type water tank.
2) non pressurized solar water heaters: ordinary solar water heaters are non pressurized water heaters, and its water tank has a tube connected with the atmosphere, is the use of roof and height gap at home, the use of water pressure. Its safety, cost and service life are much more significant than those of pressure type.
High tech products, copper and aluminum polarization composite plate core or all purple copper core, high surface treatment process, good heat transfer performance, strong heat absorption capacity, large water production.
The system has good heat preservation performance, large heat storage capacity, and water storage function of the heat preservation water tank, which can meet the needs of large quantities of personnel to use hot water, and can also be used as an emergency water source when the water is not taken.
The solar water heater system for automatic static operation, without special care, no noise, no pollution, no leakage, poisoning, fire danger, safety, environmental protection and energy saving benefits.
With sewage purification function, clean water, no pollution.
Vacuum tube solar water heater has good thermal insulation performance and strong frost resistance.
Large area installation has insulation effect on the floor
Solar water heater is an investment in theory, and it doesn't cost money. In fact, it's impossible.
The reason is that there are cloudy and snowy weather every year, and the lack of sunshine in winter. In this climate, mainly rely on electric heating to produce hot water (and some products are heated by gas), the annual average of more than 25%~50% of hot water need to rely on electric heating (not the same between regions, cloudy areas more actual power consumption. The statistical data of Shanghai area in recent three years show that the average annual overcast and rainy days up to 67%, full use of solar water heater, 70% of its heat energy from electricity or gas. In this way, the actual power consumption of solar water heater is larger than that of heat pump water heater. In addition, the "electric anti freezing belt (only in the northern region)" which is installed on the outdoor pipe of solar water heater also consumes a large amount of electricity. In addition, there are many difficult technical defects in the structure of solar water heater.
1, hot water pipeline up to ten meters, each use a lot of waste water. Calculated with typical 12 mm water pipe, the water storage per 1 meters length is 0.113 kg. If the length of the solar hot water pipe is 15 meters, it will waste about 1.7 kilograms of water each time. If the average use of 6 times a day, the daily waste of 10.2 kilograms of water; 360 kilograms of water per month waste; 4320 kilograms of water per year waste; ten years waste 43200 kilograms of water! Save some electricity at the expense of water, I'm afraid, whether it's the government or the people, if you know that, they won't approve. China more than 660 City, more than half of the city of different degree of shortage, the serious water shortage in the 111 year, because of the lack of water on industrial output value reached about 200000000000 yuan.
2, it takes a whole day's sunshine to warm up the water. When the weather is good, you can only guarantee hot water at night. There is little hot water available during the day and at night. Users can not guarantee 24 hours hot water supply, poor comfort.
The lighting board 3, solar water heaters must be installed on the roof, which is large and bulky, and the aesthetic impact of construction (the more high-grade residential areas more obvious), but also easy to damage the roof waterproof layer.
4, photoelectric complementary, in fact, can not be properly implemented. The solar water heater market 90% are difficult to overcome the problem of winter water does not reach, or produce only a small amount of hot water; these products can only be used when sunny in summer and autumn, there was no weak winter sunshine, or hot water is too small, not good, often customer complaints; in fact, solar water heater is true can be used throughout the year. Hot water using a large amount of time is concentrated in the winter, and the heat collecting effect in winter and can not meet the requirements, basically limited by weather condition, get rid of ordinary solar water heater "heaven" limitations, it is difficult to ensure there are still plenty of hot water in winter. Many dealers to make up for the lack of solar water production, the need to increase the electric or oil boiler, but this double investment, increase customer economic burden. Consumers will waste a lot of electricity in actual use, and further reduce the use of comfort. The solar water heater in the insufficient sunshine weather can also have hot water, the basic use of the so-called "photoelectric complementary" technology, is also in the solar water heater adds an electric heater. Theoretically, as long as the hot water is insufficient, the electric heating tube can be heated. That sounds beautiful. In fact, because consumers use hot water mode is very complex, 365 days a year sunshine situation is not fixed. So there's no way to properly address when to start electrical heating is the most appropriate". The control of temperature and time are in fact not (because the sunny weather just note the tap water temperature below the set temperature, if only by temperature control, it will not need the electric heating when energized). The first looks simple "electric heating control" does not solve the problem of any solar manufacturers perfect one hundred percent solar manufacturers are included.
5, there is a serious drawback is that the market is now more than 99% of all non pressure very backward "(including the field of solar water heater several strong brands, sales of all the non bearing type), commonly known as" water type". There is only one water pipe in the water inlet and outlet, so it is very inconvenient to use. It is not comfortable at all.
With the continued deterioration of rising energy costs and traditional environment, solar hot water engineering solutions are increasingly being used in residential, villas, hotels, scenic spots, science and technology parks, hospitals, schools, industrial area, agricultural planting and breeding areas and many other fields, for the rational design and arrangement of different water use to achieve the comprehensive utilization of energy, and reduce the cost of inputs.
Solar hot water project is mainly composed of solar collector, thermal storage system, control system, heat system, auxiliary power system, insulation materials, pipeline systems and accessories etc.. The solar collector absorbs the heat of the sun, the water in the heating pipe, heating water by the circulating pump through the pipeline transported to the thermal storage device, through the design of overall energy system can provide the basis for the hot water boiler, heat pump, transported to the hot line through the use of.
1. suitable for installation on roof and other fixed installation position (steel structure bracket);
2. collector beautiful atmosphere, can be installed at any angle, easy maintenance;
The 3. collector model is diverse, can meet any space installation, customer selection diversification.
Heat storage system:
1. patent engineering water tank, strong anti-corrosion performance, water nozzle design specification is reasonable, connecting pipe is convenient;
2. insulation layer for polyurethane foam once forming, uniform foaming, good insulation effect;
3. complete model, can meet the user's demand for hot water below 80 tons;
4. can meet the heating demand of 400 meters below the building single household.
Heat exchange system:
1. choose high efficiency and high quality heat exchanger, the effect of heat exchange is good;
2. using heat exchange system, the water quality of the system is good;
3. the design of independent heat exchange system can meet a variety of users with hot water quality, water pressure and water demand.
1. using PLC program module control, multi-point control, high precision, stable performance;
2. control interface user-friendly, clear module, easy operation.
Auxiliary energy system:
1. kinds of auxiliary heat source selection, electric auxiliary, auxiliary gas, coal-fired boiler and oil fired boiler and auxiliary auxiliary auxiliary heat pump can be selected according to the user characteristics;
2., the system gains more heat and little heat loss.
Thermal insulation material:
1. using polystyrene foam material, good insulation, small heat dissipation;
2. heat preservation and external application aluminum foil, beautiful, anti radiation heat dissipation.
Piping system and fittings:
1. pipeline selection of standard PVC pipe, economical and reasonable;
2. fittings standard design, rust prevention and corrosion prevention.
Hot water effect: sufficient water supply is available 24 hours a day throughout the year;
Hot water quality guarantee: constant pressure, stable water temperature, clean water quality;
System integration design: system overall consideration, collocation auxiliary heat source, professional software analysis, system efficient and reliable, user-friendly design;
System quality assurance: to heat collector, water tank, circulating pump, pipeline and other aspects of comprehensive protection, to ensure safe and stable operation of the system for more than 20 years;
System intelligent control: full data display, intelligent control, household metering, accurate information.
1. when installing solar water heater, the water pipe may be stained with dust or oil. When using it for the first time, the tap can be opened, and the sundries can be removed first.
2. the water storage in solar water heater should be regularly discharged according to the local water quality, and the drainage time is optional when the collector is at low temperature in the morning.
3. solar water heater surface, and make regular wipe in area dust, rain can play its own cleaning, clean the surface of the water heater can be obtained
Higher collector efficiency.
4. continuous sunny days without hot water, its hot water temperature is very high, in the use of solar water heater, please open cold water, then open hot water, so as not to scald.
5. taps outlet generally have filter device, the scale of water pipe debris will gather in the network, should be regularly removed, cleaning, can increase water flow smoothly.
6. in winter, the pipeline is frozen is a very common thing, such as found that the pipeline has frozen, but the pipeline has not yet cracked, the temperature rise after the general can automatically dredge. You can also use electric hair dryer to blow, or take a towel wrapped in the water pipe, and then slowly poured with warm water, can not use fire baking, knocking pipe or boiling water hot, so that will burst the pipe. Repeatedly freezing easily cracking pipes, so therefore need to strengthen the pipeline insulation measures.
7. solar water heater every two to three years on the need for inspection, cleaning and disinfection, the user can usually do it yourself some disinfection, disinfectants such as chlorine can buy some to the water inlet is poured in, let it soak for a period of time, and then released, can play a certain effect of disinfection and sterilization.
8. the average solar water heater for two to three years need to clean the inside of the vacuum tube, to prevent the vacuum tube inside the scale of the impact of heat absorption effect.
9. if the solar water heater is equipped with special instrument, it is necessary to pay attention to lightning protection and electric protection, and don't take a shower and unplug the electric heating plug when it thunders.
Most of the electric heating pipes in the market are equipped with simple temperature controller, and they don't have the function of preventing the dry burning of the real system. At the same time, most of the solar water heater installed in the outdoor roof, the difference in management of the extensive technology and management personnel, plus some electric heating tube manufacturers to mislead its products "can prevent dry burning, resulting from the installation of solar water heater on heating tube, there is a serious hidden danger of accident. How to solve the problem of "dry burning" of electric heating tube? In addition to choose reliable suppliers should also be in the winter of solar energy are few, also should go to the water tank of the solar water heater on the water, according to the data, there is no water tank, solar vacuum tube in air drying, the temperature in the tube can reach about 2500C, it is easy to pipe explosion. In winter, the tubes are exposed outside. Under the condition of very cold weather, the water inside the tube can not be frozen, so the solution of the problem only needs to be coated with a thick sponge in the water tank tube or solar tube, which can effectively prevent the water from going up and cause the air pipe to burst.
Second, it's important to see if the leakage protector works well. In addition, the water tank should be cleaned for a period of time under the condition. In a word, no matter whether the electric heating tube used for solar water heater or other liquid electric heating pipe can not be separated from the liquid dry burning, otherwise, the internal temperature of the electric heating pipe is too high, so that the electric heating tube is burned out, which leads to the hidden danger of the safety.