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Phase diagram of water salt system and its application / Deng Tianlong / Chemical Industry Press

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Essential information

Title: phase diagram of water salt system and its application

Price: 49 yuan

Author: Deng Tianlong series

Publishing House: Chemical Industry Press

Publication date: 2013-11-01


Words: 560 words

Page number: 326

Revision: 1

Binding: paperback

Folio: 16 open

Commodity logo: xinhua1200780857

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The phase diagram and application of water salt system describes systematically the principle and application of phase diagram of water salt system. Among them, * * to the sixth chapter, introduces the system structure, the phase diagram of the system of two yuan to five yuan salt water drawing method, understanding, analysis, calculation and analysis of phase diagram for typical process diagram, and gives a lot of examples of production. Considering the special phenomenon of dielectric salt water system and its stability are regular, "salt water system based on phase diagram and application" focuses on the stable equilibrium phase diagram, the metastable phase diagram and its application in the seventh chapter. Considering the specific conditions of production and in the field, there may be equilibria have not yet been studied and measured data, the eighth chapter introduces the experimental research method of salt water system stable and metastable equilibrium equilibrium. In view of the calculation of phase equilibrium data has become an effective tool for the research and development process, the ninth chapter introduces the calculation method of phase diagram of salt water system model based on the theory of electrolyte solution. As a textbook, at the end of the chapter, there are exercises at the end of the book Exercises answer; as the research and application of reference books, the appendix includes Saline Lake, sea water, underground brine and mineral salt mineral salts related physical and chemical properties, mineral salts, optical properties of common natural salt and its standardization degree, ion parameters of water salt electrolyte solution model and two yuan to five yuan water solubility data of multi system.


Chapter one introduction 1
The first water saving salt system 1
I. system and system 1
Two. The composition and representation of the system 2
The second day rule 4
Phase 4
Two, the independent group score 4
Three, degree of freedom 7
Four, rule 7
Five. Other principles and rules in the study of phase diagrams 10
Third stable phase diagram and metastable phase diagram of water saving salt system 11
Solubility and stability phase diagram 11
Two. Metastable solubility and metastable phase diagram 13
The generation, function and learning method of fourth phase diagrams 14
Research status and development trend of phase diagram of water salt system 14
Two. The role of the phase diagram of the water salt system 17
Three. Learning purpose and method of phase diagram 18
Exercise 19

The second chapter binary phase diagram of salt water system 20
Section 1 phase diagram representation method 20
A rule, characteristic and coordinate system 20
Two. Phase diagram 21
Second simple phase diagrams of two element water salt system 23
First, the significance of point line area 23
Two, straight line rule 24
Three, lever rule 24
Four. Analysis of isothermal evaporation and cooling crystallization process 25
Third phase diagram of complex two element water salt system 28
First, stable hydrate and unstable hydrate 28
Two. Plotting of complex two element phase diagrams 30
Three. Understanding hydrate phase diagram 32
Four. The dissolution of unstable hydrate 33
Five. Phase diagram with polycrystalline transition 34
Material calculation method for phase diagram of fourth section two element water salt system 36
Lever rule 36
Two. Non precipitation component method 37
Three. Material balance method 37
Application of phase diagram of fifth section two element water salt system 38
Phase diagram analysis of sea salt production 38
Two. Phase diagram analysis of magnesium chloride production 39
Exercises two 42

The third chapter three phase diagram of 45 water salt system
Section 1 graphical representation 45
A rule, feature 45
Two. Graphical representation method 45
Three. Space stereogram 48
Four. The isothermal cross section figure of the stereogram 49
Second phase isothermal diagram of three element water salt system 54
Classification of isothermal phase diagrams for one and three water salt systems 54
Understanding of isothermal phase diagram of two or three element water salt system 59
Three. The isothermal phase diagram represented by alkaline substance and acidic substance 61
Application of third straight line rule and lever rule in isothermal phase diagram 64
First, straight line rule and lever rule proof 65
Two. Application of straight line rule and lever rule 65
Three. Straight line rule and lever rule extend 66
Phase diagram analysis of fourth section three element system 68
Analysis of isothermal evaporation process 68
Two. Salting out process analysis 73
Three. Analysis of variable temperature process 74
Four 、 zero change point research 75
Application of phase diagram of fifth section three element system 77
First, the separation and extraction of potash salt mine 77
Two, the crude carnallite decomposition of potassium chloride production 79
Three. Separation and extraction of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate 84
Exercises three 87

The fourth chapter four phase diagram of 90 water salt system
Section 1 four water salt system 90
Classification of water and salt system of 90 and four
Two, 90 phase characteristics
Three, the relationship between components 90
Four, the concentration of expression 93
Five. State function and continuous principle 95
Phase diagram basis of second section four element system 96
First, dry basis plane phase diagram 96
Two. Pyramid solid phase diagram 97
Three. Prism phase diagram 99
Four. Isothermal solid phase diagram 100
Five. The projection of the isothermal solid phase diagram 102
Six, multi phase diagram 105
Plotting third phase diagrams of four element water salt system 108
The basis for plotting phase diagrams is 108
Two. Sketch of dry triangle phase diagram and water diagram 108
Three. Dry basis square phase diagram and water map 110
Analysis of phase diagram of fourth section four element system 113
First, the process vector method 113
Two. Straight line rule and lever rule 114
Three. Understanding of phase diagrams 116
Four. Analysis of isothermal evaporation process 118
Five, multi process analysis of phase diagram 123
Exercises four 125

The application of phase diagram of four element water salt system in fifth chapter 127
Section 1. Phase diagram analysis of typical industrial processes 127
A, Chaerhan Saline Lake brine Beach Sun 127 Carnallitite
Two seawater salt making 128
Three. Production of potassium nitrate by complete conversion method 128
Four, partial conversion method to produce potassium sulfate 131
Second phase diagram calculation 133
Graphical calculation method 133
Two. Analytic calculation method 135
Three. Material balance algorithm 138
The phase diagram analysis and calculation of the washing process in section third of the 142 carnallite decomposition
First, the law of salt precipitation by isothermal evaporation 143
Two. Phase diagram analysis and calculation 144
Phase diagram analysis and calculation of fourth section conversion to produce potassium sulfate 151
One, direct conversion at room temperature 151
Two. Indirect transformation at room temperature 153
Three, more than 156 complete conversion
Exercises five 158

The sixth chapter five phase diagram of 162 water salt system
The first section features 162 phase rule
The relation between second sections and the method of representation of composition 163
One, the relationship between components 163
Two. Representation of composition 164
Third section interactive graphical representation of five element system 166
A three-dimensional graph 166, isothermal drying
Two. The stereo diagram of the interactive five element system 166
Three, do 169 simplified kitu
Four. Water chart and sodium diagram 173
Five. The relations among several figures 174
Phase diagram analysis of fourth interactive five element water salt system 175
First, the application of process vector method 175
Two. Analysis of evaporation and salting out law 177
Three. Determination of limit point and state of phase equilibrium 179
Four. Calculation method of quantity 185
Fifth simple phase diagrams of five element water salt system 187
A three-dimensional graph 187, isothermal drying
Two. Simplify figure 188
Three. Application of phase diagram 189
Application of phase diagram of sixth section five element water salt system 190
Extraction of potassium chloride from bittern by evaporation concentration method 190
Two. Analysis of evaporation heat preservation process in potassium chloride production 193
Three. Analysis of cooling crystallization process of clarified liquid in potassium chloride production 197
Exercises six 201

The seventh chapter is metastable equilibrium phase diagram 203
The first metastable phase equilibrium is 203
Metastable phase equilibrium 203
Two. Supersaturated solution 204
Second phase metastable phase diagram of two and three elements system 205
Metastable phase diagram of one or two element system 206
Metastable phase diagram of two or three element system 207
Metastable phase diagram of third section four element system 208
Metastable phase diagram of fourth section five element system 210
The metastable phase diagram of seawater system at 25 C is 210
Two. The metastable phase diagram of seawater system at 15 and 35 temperatures is 212
Three. Multi temperature metastable phase diagram of lithium containing system 214
Fifth phase diagram of nonequilibrium phase 216
Phase diagram of non-equilibrium state of boron salt system 216
Two. Nonequilibrium phase diagram of boiling evaporation 216
Exercises seven 217

The eighth chapter is the experimental method of phase equilibrium of water salt system 218
The stable phase equilibrium of the first water saving salt system is 218
Isothermal dissolution equilibrium method 218
Two. Variable temperature method 222
Second metastable phase equilibrium of water saving salt system 223
Isothermal evaporation crystallization method 223
Two 、 experimental research method and experimental device 224
Third solid phase identification 224
Wet solid phase method 224
Two. Analytic method 225
Three. Crystal optics method 226
Four. Other methods 228
Fourth methods for studying thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions 229
I. isobaric method 229
Two. Electric potential method 231
Three. Calorimetry 231
Exercises eight 232

The ninth chapter: Theory and application of electrolyte solution of water salt system 233
Section 1 development of electrolyte solution theory 233
First, the classical electrolyte solution theory 233
Two, semi empirical model 234
Three. Statistical thermodynamic model 234
Second Pitzer electrolyte solution theory 235
Pitzer calculation formula of one component electrolyte 236
Two. Pitzer formula of mixed electrolyte 238
Three. Extension of Pitzer model 241
Third Pitzer parameters of electrolyte 242
One, Pitzer parameter 242
Two, Pitzer parameters obtained 242
Fourth solid-liquid balance of water saving salt system 246
The equilibrium constant of salt dissolution is 246
Two, the salt water system of salt solubility calculation 248
Fifth Pitzer electrolyte solution theory for water salt system calculation program 251
Exercises nine 264

Exercises reference answers 265

Appendix 276
Appendix 1. Names, abbreviations and densities of mineral salts in English and Chinese 276
Appendix two common data for phase diagram calculation 278
Appendix trihydrated salt and salt 279
Appendix four the conversion relationship between compounds and ions 282
Appendix 5 see the standardization degree of natural salts and their ions 283
Appendix six common electrolyte Pitzer parameter 284
Appendix seven light mineral identification table 288
Appendix eight steady phase equilibrium data of seawater system 291

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